Visiting Monticello

I had the opportunity to visit Monticello the other day. Considering my recent trip where I visited some of my Roane family relations on another plantation in Louisiana, I knew It was going to be a day of mixed emotions.

While I knew Monticello sat atop a mountain, it never occurred to me exactly what went into its actual construction. Enter our (amazing) tour guide, Mary. One of the first things she told our tour group was that it had taken hundreds of enslaved people to literally level the uppermost part of the mountain in order to create the flat plateau visitors to Monticello see today. It didn’t occur to me until long after our tour had finished to ask how much earth had been removed as part of that human engineering feat. It was an exceedingly hot and humid day when we visited. I couldn’t image the physical toll that endeavor must have taken. While the view from the house and the surrounding gardens and terraces are stunning…they came at a real human price.

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The land surrounding Monticello is what remains of the top of a mountain which was cleared away through the labour of enslaved people

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The image above gives you some idea of the view of the surrounding area from Monticello.  You can literally see the surrounding countryside for miles in every direction.

Thomas Jefferson, the man behind the building of Monticello, was a practical man. The tons of earth his enslaved population removed, in order to clear the land for the estate, were used to make the very bricks which built the house. It was also used to daub the gaps of the cabins built for his enslaved population. Very little, it seems, went to waste.

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The bricks used in the construction of the house and the surrounding terraces and outbuildings were made with the distinctive red soil that was removed in the creation of the flat plateau.

At the start of the tour, Mary asked people in our group where we’d come from. I mentioned that I was from London and Boston. I can’t remember the exact question that prompted my next answer. It had something to do with was I excited about being there. I laughed as I told her I was, but for a reason she probably would find very hard to believe. She countered with “Try me.” So I mentioned that Thomas Jefferson was an ancestral cousin via one set of known common ancestors – Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, and his wife, Margaret Wolton. Mary didn’t blink and answered with something of a cheeky grin: “Why on earth would I find that hard to believe?” There are other common ancestors via my Randolph line, however, I need to do much more work on that family to find the relatively more recent common ancestors via that line. My sister mentioned that Sally Hemmings was also a cousin and a Sheffey family relation via her Woodson descendants.

It was at that point that I clocked her surname…and spent the rest of the tour impatiently waiting for a chance to ask her a question about some of her ancestors. Mary’s surname is one that I know very, very well from years of researching my Virginia family. Because I haven’t had an opportunity to ask her if she’d be fine with me using her full name (I’m positive she would be. However, it’s always good to have that permission), I’m not going to publish her surname.

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My brother (left) and I chatting to our newfound cousin Mary (centre). The small building in the background is where Thomas Jefferson and his family lived during the construction of Monticello.  Picture courtesy of Khoncepts

So, as we moved to one of the terraces, I asked her if she was a descendant of a famous Jamestown family. She readily answered ‘yes’. I explained how I was a descendant of the same family via a labyrinth of Ball-Mottrom marriages on my father’s maternal line through his Roane line, as well as Poythress-Strother marriages on his paternal side of his family through his Clark line. She laughed out loud. That was it. We were cousins. I had to laugh myself. I joked with her that she couldn’t have expected that as she got ready for work that morning. She couldn’t resist sharing that piece of news with the rest of the tour group.

Which just goes to prove one of the central premises behind Genealogy Adventures: Americans are connected to each other in amazing, surprising, and long forgotten ways – regardless of race, ethnicity, or other measures used to divide us from one another.

Things took a decidedly deeper, more contemplative, and spiritual turn as my siblings and I made our way to where Sally Hemmings had her rooms.

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My brother and I standing in front of Sally hemming’s rooms. Picture courtesy of Khoncepts

Where she lived is currently an active archaeological dig site, so we were not able to actually go in and see. Nevertheless, in the moments before the above snap was taken, I spent some time contemplating the life of this familial relation. The range of emotions was wide and varied.

Next came Mulberry Row.  It was here that I stood inside a cabin for enslaved people for the first time in my life. The Hemmings cabin, as it’s called, is a reproduction – and by no means your typical slave cabin. From what our second tour guide told us, it reflected the status of the Hemmings family – well, as much ‘status’ as any enslaved person could attain  Just to put that into a realistic context.

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Exterior shot of the Hemmings cabin

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Interior shot of the Hemmings cabin

Too many thoughts went through my head to share here. Everywhere I looked, I returned to the thought than an entire family would have shared this humble space. I went pretty quiet as I contemplated that existence.  Suffice to say it was a powerful and stark experience. My only comment was to my brother as I said that, while I knew there were many African-descended Americans who couldn’t make the same claim – that our family had come a long, long way from the days this cabin represented. That’s all that needed to be said.

Our final stop before we left was the cemetery for the enslaved people. That space hit me the hardest.

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There are 400 known enslaved souls who toiled at Monticello. To-date, only 40 of their burials are known. No one knows who any of these 40 individuals were. They are nameless. The area of the demarcated cemetery is small. It would take a minute to walk across its width, and about a minute to walk across its length. It’s small. As for headstones or engraved markers? There are none. Just a few rocks.

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The image above is a plaque with a list containing the names of only a fraction of the enslaved souls who died at Monticello.  It is not an indication of any of the 40 known graves in the fenced off portion of the cemetery.

To say this hit me hard would be an understatement. It was like being sucker punched. I simply wasn’t expecting it. Nor was I alone. A friendly, middle-aged European-descended couple arrived just as my siblings and I were leaving. The wife asked us if we knew where the slave cemetery was. My siblings and I pointed to the space in front of us , and said, almost in unison: “This is it.”

Both of them looked perplexed. And the wife asked us another question: “But where are the headstones?” My voice was pretty flat as I spoke. “Those handful of rocks. That’s it.” Both of them were horrified, and visibly upset. All I could offer them was, “It is what it is.”  Really, that’s all I could say.  In that instance they got it.  I knew they got it. I could see it on their faces. And, I suppose, that is the unspoken power of places like Monticello.

That’s the full circle of my experience at Monticello.  At the start, it was visiting the ancestral home of a distant cousin.  The latter, the stark reminder of why I am related to Thomas Jefferson at all….through slavery. It’s quite the thing to wrap my head around at times and face.  However, as I said to the couple at the cemetery for the enslaved, it is what it is.

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Leila Sheffey-Taylor: A life lived in the turn of the 20th Century black press

Part of what drives my genealogy journey is putting flesh to the usual vital statistics details for my ancestors. Vital statistics are unquestionably important.  However, it’s rather dry stuff. For me, it’s about making the ancestors three-dimensional, living, breathing people with personal histories, quirks, and foibles.  You know, the things that make people, well, people. I face the same challenges in researching ancestors who didn’t move among the great and the good as any other genealogist. There is a distinct lack of anecdotal materials, letters, journals, or diaries to achieve this goal.

My Newspaper.com membership, however, is enabling me to catch glimpses of the personal lives for quite a few of my ancestors and ancestral kin.  Actually, that membership is working overtime. However, it’s a double-edge sword.  The lives of my less melinated ancestors and kin who were middle class or wealthy have been fairly well documented in old newspaper clippings, letters, journals, and diaries.  Not so for my ancestors and kin who were poor or people of colour. From my experience to-date, people of colour rarely appeared in your everyday newspapers.  If they did, it was for reasons that weren’t very happy or positive.

Enter newspapers whose audience were primarily people of colour. These papers have proven to be an information goldmine.  They chronicle the social lives and careers for their community – as well as state and national news that directly affected their readership.

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Leila A Sheffey , 1906

When it comes to Leila A “Storm” Sheffey, a cousin who descends from a different Sheffey line than mine, African American newspapers have revealed a story worthy of a Jane Austen romance: a plucky, astute, and educated heroine; solid middle class values; a trip; an illness; a society courtship; and a marriage. OK, this being an Austen story comparison…a good marriage.

The heroine of this real life version of Austen was Leila. Of course, none of the clippings I’ve read explain that ‘Storm’ nickname. Although one of them certainly commented about it. She was the daughter of a middle class NW Washington DC family. In 1899, her father, Isaac Taylor Sheffey, was a successful carpenter while her mother, Laura Ann Woodson, worked for the US Bureau of Engraving.

leila-a-storm-sheffey-visit-10-mar-1899The thing that strikes me about the 1899 article above is a sense of the seeming innocence of a bygone age. It would be inconceivable to print anyone’s full address in this day and age. Yet, there hers is.

Even better, there’s a snippet about her general demeanor: unassuming and positive in a marked degree. It just makes me think of the Parthenon of strong leading ladies amongst Austen’s heroines.  Aspects of Elizabeth Bennett, Emma Woodhouse, Anne Elliott, Catherine Morland, and Elinor Dashwood spring to mind.

The other thing that immediately sprang to mind was the sheer distance and expense of travelling from Washington DC to Des Moines, Iowa. In 1899, that would have been quite the journey by train.  It was definitely an adventure. This too tells me something about her.

The last thing that struck me about this seemingly superficial account was the strength of family connections. George Woodson was the nephew of Leila’s mother, Laura Ann Woodson. George and Leila both had deep roots in Wythe County, Virginia. While Leila’s family moved to Washington DC, George struck out for Iowa.  Both families clearly remained in contact despite the distance between them.  I can imagine the letters that passed between both households in Iowa and Washington DC: catching up on all the usual family news that fill such letters. The fondness, and the bonds between them, were clearly strong.

The article describes Leila’s cousin, attorney George Woodson, as ’distinguished’. His career certainly was.  However, and this will be touched upon in a further newspaper clipping, the paper was conveying another emphasis through the word ‘distinguished’. Leila’s mother, Laura Ann, was believed to be the 3x great-granddaughter of President Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings. This Woodson-Jefferson family link is hotly –and I do mean hotly – contested between the Woodsons and the Monticello Organization. In this instance, we have a strong oral family tradition butting heads against a DNA test showing otherwise. Nevertheless, in 1899, this is what was believed.

On her father’s side of the family, she was a great grandniece of Virginia Congressman, Daniel Henry Sheffey (1770-1830), who was quite the politician in his day.

I can only suspect it was these family associations that led to the length of the article. What strikes me is that details of their respective family backgrounds were known. I have to laugh, it took me years of research to reclaim this lost knowledge.

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From 28 Oct 1904, Iowa State Bystander

Between Oskaloosa, Des Moines, and Washington, DC, there are plenty of snippets for Leila like the one above. Whether it was singing at recitals, or fetes, family gatherings, or visits, there’s been a wealth of short print pieces that bring her to life. I’ve included an extra one below:

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Her 1906 engagement announcement is simply pure gold:

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Again, there is a hint to another Presidential link.  Her future husband, Dr Charles Sumner Taylor, was believed to be either a descendant of, or cousin to, President Zachary Taylor.

Putting modern American black viewpoints about such associations to one side, as genealogists and historians, we can only view things from our ancestors’ point of view. Generations ago, such family associations clearly meant something. That would be the ‘belonging to the first families of the old dominion’ bit. No matter how we feel about such things today, you don’t get a newspaper article like the one above without such connections meaning something to the reporter who wrote the article, the publisher, and the community in general.

Honestly? There are other parts of the story I find far more insightful. She was a respected court reporter. She clearly worked, and worked hard. In doing so, she earned the respect of her peers. This was no easy feat for a woman in 1906. She was active in her community. And the couple seems to have been generally well-liked and admired.

And, of course, I can’t help but wonder if she met Dr Taylor during her earlier visit in 1899, the visit where she fell ill. Was he the doctor who tended to her? What a story to tell their children and grandchildren. Did that first meeting, and his courtship, lead to her permanent move from Washington DC to Iowa? She’d clearly been resident in the town for a few years prior to her engagement and marriage. Whether this is how their romance happened or not, the newspaper snippets and articles I found for her truly transformed her from a name on my family tree to a living and breathing person.

I heartily recommend checking out both Newspapers.com and ChroniclingAmerica.loc.gob to find your own ancestors’ stories.

Family mystery: African American Wards of Wythe County, VA. (republished with an update)

Post updated 15 December 2013

update follows at the bottom of this post

This is a wee mystery that’s been simmering on the proverbial back burner for the past few years.  The mystery involves three women with the surname of Ward who married into the Sheffey family. Every blue moon, I trot this mystery out and spend a week or so attempting to solve it. It’s one heck of a stubborn mystery.  While I usually avoid giving inanimate things human characteristics…this mystery is definitely reluctant to give up its secrets.

First up is Angeline Ward who was born around 1832.  Her birthplace is cited as Selma, Alabama. She was the wife of Godfrey Sheffey, born around 1836 in Virginia (he’s another mystery). There is a small group of us working on the Angeline and Godfrey family group. The working assumption was Angeline and Godfrey were the slaves of Dr Lawrence Brengle Sheffey (26 Nov 1818 , Wythe, VA – 1866, Huntsville, AL) . He’s the only slave owning Sheffey we’ve found who moved from Virginia to Alabama.  This assertion is given further credence in the 1860 Slave Schedule for Huntsville, Madison Co, AL. Angeline and all her children born before 1860 are found in this document. There is a question mark over whether the 41 year old slave male in this census is Godfrey Sheffey.

imageshowing Angeline Ward, Godfrey Sheffey and their children

Angeline Ward, Godfrey Sheffey and their children

Descendants of Angeline Ward and Godfrey Sheffey

Descendants of Angeline Ward and Godfrey Sheffey

At some point between 1870 and 1880, Angeline returned to Wytheville with most of her children.  She did so without her husband Godfrey who presumably died between the census of 1860 and the census of 1870. Her son Lewis returned to Wytheville with his mother, however, made the trip back to Huntsville, AL where he died in 1919. What’s interesting is her grand-son William T Turner of Wytheville married my great-aunt, Callie Sheffey (daughter of Daniel Henry Sheffey III and Jane A White). In previous posts I noted that Angeline returned to Wytheville, one of the Sheffey’s Virginia strongholds, as part of a post-slavery Sheffey family reunion process. What I hadn’t considered is this homecoming could have been twofold. There are a handful of black and mulatto Ward families with a long history in Wythe County too. As yet, I have been unable to connect her to any of the Wythe-based Ward families I’ve found. In my opinion, it’s more than mere coincidence.

Dicey Ward (21 Dec 1847, Wythe Co, VA – ?) was the wife of James Zachariah Mitchell Sheffey and resided in Marion, Smyth Co., VA.

image showing Dicey Ward and James Zachariah Mitchell Sheffey and son Charles Sheffey

Dicey Ward and James Zachariah Mitchell Sheffey

Sarah Ward (1845, VA – ?) was the wife of Perry Cloud (1840, VA – ?) and was resident in Fort Chiswell, Wythe Co., VA.  Their daughter Mary (1860, Fort Chiswell, Wythe, VA – ?) married Godfrey Sheffey, Jr. (1852, Huntsville, Madison Co., AL – ?), the son of Angeline Ward and Godfrey Sheffey, Sr.

Image showing Sarah Ward, Peter Cloud and their descendants

Sarah Ward, Peter Cloud and their descendants

Angeline Ward, Dicey Ward and Sarah Ward were contemporaries.  Whilst older, Angeline is of the same generation as Dicey and Sarah.

If our educated hunch is correct, and Angeline is indeed connected by blood to Dicey Ward and Sarah Ward, this provides an interesting insight into the wider family relations. It would mean that one of Angeline’s sons married one of her Wards relation while one of her grandsons married one of her husband’s Sheffey relations. In other words, her descendants re-connected with both sides of their family through marriage, strengthening those bonds.

Is there an association among these 3 women and the slave owning Ward family of Wythe County, VA? Some initially intriguing results may yet shed some light on this. One of the names which keeps cropping up is Ballard Ephraim Ward, born on 1 Dec 1828 in Cripple Creek, Wythe. The Wards of Wythe County are connected to various branches of the white Sheffey family through marriages with the Edwards, Stewarts, Dobyns and Bland families. Ballard himself was directly connected to the Sheffeys through his marriage to Amelia Gwyn Nuckolls, a relation of Cena Nuckolls, Lawrence Brengle Sheffey’s step-mother and the mother of Lawrence’s half-brother, Ezra Nuckolls Sheffey.

One question which has us thinking hard is this one: did marriages between their slaves further cement familial ties between slave owning families also united through marriage? Naturally, I asked THE awkward question:  If slave families mirrored the marriage aspirations of their owners, and there were blood ties between slaves and white masters, did this influence the treatment slave families received from their owners?  In other words, how deep did these blood ties go? Unravelling this particular mystery might go some way towards shedding some light on this subject.

Just like some of the other family mysteries, the answer to this particular mystery is tantalizingly close. Cracking it will illustrate the close ties between the African American Ward and Sheffey families living in Wythe and Smyth Counties, Virginia.

15 December 2013 update

Jane Ward

Isaac Taylor Sheffey & Laura Ann Woodson family tree

Isaac Taylor Sheffey & Laura Ann Woodson family tree- click for larger image

I stumbled across yet another Ward lady while doing some additional research on Taylor Sheffey (son of Angeline Ward and her husband, Godfrey Taylor Sheffey). Taylor has been a bit frustrating to research as all traces of him cease after the 1880 Census. I had a feeling that this had something to do with him using a different name – and I was right…kind of.  I knew that his widow, Laura Ann Woodson Sheffey, had moved to Washington DC with their daughters. So I concentrated on trying to find any evidence of Taylor Sheffey residing in Washington DC. This included finding a death certificate. It seemed the most sensible and logical thing to do.

What I found was death certificate for his widow, Laura Ann:

Transcription of Laura Ann Woodson Sheffey's death certificate, courtesy of FamilySearch.org

Transcription of Laura Ann Woodson Sheffey’s death certificate, courtesy of FamilySearch.org – click for larger image

original record: https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/F7B7-2QX

And there it was. Taylor’s full name was Isaac Taylor Sheffey. I got excited. I thought I’d found the vital key to unlocking more of Taylor’s story. As with all things genealogy-related, it did and it didn’t. What it did yield was more evidence that his first name was Isaac.  This came in the form of his daughter Stella’s marriage record:

Stella Sheffey's marriage certificate

Stella Sheffey’s marriage certificate – click for larger image

And here the trail for Isaac Taylor Sheffey runs cold. despite extensive searching I’m unable to find further documents for him.

I’m going to take a wee step back and return to his wife, Laura Ann Woodson. Her death certificate threw up a nugget of gold in the form of her mother’s name. Her name had been unknown until this point: Jane Ward of Wythe County, VA. She is another member of the African American Ward family. All I know of her history is that she was born around 1834, died on 20 October 1869 and was the first wife of Frederick M. Woodson. It’s not much, perhaps, but is more than I knew two days ago. So for now, she is another member of the Wythe County based Ward family clan with a Sheffey family connection who warrants further research.